The era of globalization has moved away from the urgent problems and issues that threaten political and social entities. As a result of his connection with man and his various assets and applications, he became interested in a number of topics characterized by universality and boundless influence. The environment is one of the most important elements that is inseparable from human existence, as it creates an environment that is inseparable from man, affects him and is affected by him. The influence of man on the environment has changed over time, so he initially tries to protect himself from dangers and simply satisfy his needs. However, the ability to extract and consume various resources, as well as produce large amounts of waste, was soon overcome by his tool, which faced many problems that threatened his own existence and the entity of existing creatures. The need to protect the environment arose from man and his various practices and began to be seen as a problem for the environment.
Therefore, the following question can be asked:
|Global politics refers to a set of rules, programs and plans, which are the outputs of an interactive process between non-international actors. This policy refers to global co-operation to address issues with global and unlimited impact to serve the overall interest of the world as a whole.|
Has the international community been able to build rational global environmental policies that comply with the requirements to achieve the common interests of countries?
1- The concept of global environmental policy:
Global politics derives from three main infinitives:
– The end of the Cold War and the emergence of the growing role of the United Nations in the management of the international system,
– The emergence of globalization, its reflections in all fields and levels, making it a subject of contemporary thought,
– Increasing awareness of threats of a global nature means that any country has become limited to confronting them and reducing their severity.
According to this, environmental problems (as issues that can be solved at national level) have become extremely difficult and complex crises that require fair and comprehensive global solutions. This situation has caused the environment to be of global interest, has become an important variable in international relations, a subject of disagreement and cooperation among all countries. This interest is supported by the emergence of new concepts that are closely related to the environment in international relations, perhaps the most important of which is the concept of global politics. In parallel, the global interest in creating a real management of environmental problems has crystallized in the light of global summits, agreements and conventions. This reflects the emergence of a global policy to protect the environment.
4- Global environmental problems are:
Environmental problems have changed from immediate and temporary effects to cumulative and long-term effects. Its sources and causes are complex and numerous, and it affects the whole world. The most obvious global environmental issues include:
A- Environmental pollution
Pollution is the main source of all other environmental problems, because it leaves toxic and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and solid waste on the floor, causing oil deposits and solids in the water. The most important of these contemporary problems arising from the traditional problems of the environment:
B – Global Warming Phenomenon
The earth’s atmosphere is often considered the atmosphere that protects the earth’s temperature until the climate above its surface remains warm. As soon as the heat of the sun reaches the earth, as the temperature rises, the excess heat needed by the world begins to spread in the form of infrared radiation. Then the atmosphere imprisoned some of that heat and the rest went into space. Greenhouse gases then capture a larger amount of this radiation.
Thus, this phenomenon is called global warming and increases the temperature of the Earth. Gases that absorb infrared radiation consist of carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, nitric oxide and water vapor. Chemical gases include chlorine and fluorocarbons.
The latest statistics show that the average global temperature has increased by about 0.8°C. This, in turn, is enough to turn drought-stricken lands into barren deserts. Global warming is not only about slightly increasing the average temperature, but also changing the shape of the earth. For this reason, drought in some places causes flash floods in some places.
C- Climate change
The increase in the amount of greenhouse gases leads to more heat, therefore, it negatively affects the world’s climate. In this context, various reports and studies prepared by the Intergovernmental Committee of Climate Experts confirm that climate changes have harmful consequences for nature and humans. The reports confirm that its manifestations are beginning to manifest themselves in our time and may worsen if the necessary measures are not taken to limit and reduce its effects. Among the most obvious consequences of this phenomenon are: Natural disasters. In 2010, approximately 250 thousand people in the entire world lost their lives as a result of natural disasters. According to estimates, it indicates the possibility of emigration of one billion people due to climate change in the next 40 years. According to experts, it is subject to an increase in the severity of natural disasters, droughts and rising sea levels due to melting ice, and this, in turn, leads to displacement.
D- Sour rain:
Sour rain is a side hazard of burning fossil fuels. Some of the gases released when the fuel burns – in particular, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides – combine with water in the earth’s atmosphere to form sulfur and nitric acid. Therefore, this rain falling on any area will be sour. This rain is detrimental to the vegetation and forest cover of the land, as well as contributes to the destruction of some parts of buildings and minerals. This rain threatens the material and cultural heritage of the man. It threatens human health, as it irritates the membranes of the respiratory tract in such a way.
The hole in the E-Ozone layer
The stratosphere is one of the most important layers of the atmosphere (also known as the ozone layer), as it is rich in ozone. They are about 40 km thick, they are necessary for the continuation of life on the surface of the earth, as they represent a protective belt from ultraviolet rays. In addition, it absorbs a large part of electromagnetic radiation, which is characterized by high energy.
Environmental pollutants (such as cooling devices, aerosols, jet flight, missile launch into space, and environmental pollution with chemicals reaching the stratosphere through nuclear explosions) caused by financially beneficial industrial and human activities are thought to upset the balance for creating and destroying the ozone layer in the earth’s atmosphere. This, in turn, leads to cosmic disturbances and environmental degradation. As a result, the reduction of ozone leads to an increase in ultraviolet rays, which leads to the spread of skin cancer, a shortage of agricultural products and the extinction of livestock. The existence of the ozone hole is in a circular relationship with the phenomenon of global warming.Together with this hole, ultraviolet rays leak into the earth, which contributes to an increase in the temperature of the earth. The increase in land temperature leads to a further increase in greenhouse gases, reaching a higher and deeper degree within the ozone layer, which increases the percentage of melting ice.
|The environmental risks mentioned above have a global impact that requires cooperation to prevent them from spiraling out of control. The environment is still in constant change, and every movement in it is important, because it can lead to a radical change in the way of life.|
The phenomenon of desertification is the process of destruction or destruction of the vital energy of the earth (soil, vegetation and water resources) in such a way that it can lead to desert-like conditions. It is a manifestation of the widespread degradation of ecosystems, which leads to a decrease in the vital energy of the Earth. This environmental problem has economic implications. As a result of desertification, the world loses about 694 km2 of agricultural land, which leads to the loss of agricultural land. It is known that a third of the world’s territory is often subjected to desertification. Most of the countries prone to desertification are located in developing countries, Asia, Latin America, Africa and the Caribbean.
3- Towards a global environmental policy
A- Stockholm Conference:
On 1972, the United Nations Conference on Human and Environment, attended by 1.200 people representing 144 countries, was held in the capital of Sweden. The Stockholm Conference sought to create a global perception and a unified awareness of environmental issues, while rich countries were busy controlling pollution.
Poor countries, on the other hand, are preoccupied with poverty, which leads to pollution, and inefficient use of resources caused by low development. The Stockholm Conference emphasizes that development and the environment are on the same side.
The conference resulted in a number of results, most notably the agreement on the establishment of the first specialized program on environmental issues, called the United Nations Environment Program. In addition, it was decided to establish the Environmental Fund.
The outcome of the conference was completed to positive results and four agreements were signed:
– The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, a.k.a. ”Paris Convention”, 23.11.1972
– The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, ”The London Convention” for short, 29.12.1972
– The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), a.k.a. Washington Convention, 03.03.1973
– ”The London Convention” on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 02.11.1972
– Rio de Janeiro Conference:
The Rio de Janeiro conference is important for the development of global environmental policy. It was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on June 3-4, 1992, which also known as the World Summit. This conference was attended by representatives of more than 100 countries and many international, regional and non-governmental organizations. This conference resulted in the ratification of several agreements, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Rio Declaration. Perhaps the most important outcome of this conference is the 21st century agenda on environment and development, which is a detailed action plan İn all areas of sustainable development. It is an executive program that addresses environmental and development issues in an integrated way at the global, national and local levels, and to ensure sustainable development. These agendas reflect a global interest in environmental issues.
|The growth of environmental problems and the increase in their severity have led global policy to address the problems caused by the fact that a global and comprehensive environmental protection awareness has not crystallized. Therefore, global politics tends to adopt corrective policies, one of the most important areas that attract attention is: the problem of climate change and global warming.|
– Johannesburg Conference on Sustainable Development:
10 years after the Rio de Janeiro Conference, which stated the need for global cooperation against the existence of the ecological crisis, the Johannesburg Conference was held from 26 August to 4 September 2002 with the participation of more than 100 kings, heads of state, heads of government and representatives of 137 countries. The period between the two conferences has witnessed the signing of a series of protocols:
– Protocol on Combating Desertification, 1993
– Kyoto Climate Change Protocol, 1997
– Montreal Protocol on Biological Diversity, 2000
– Copenhagen Conference on Climate Change:
In December 2009, 139 heads of state and government came together to find a final solution to the global warming problem. It mainly aims to reach a new global agreement to protect the environment from the risks of climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, as a result of the decoupling on many points between developing and developed countries, the results of the conference were not enough to confront the negative challenges of this phenomenon. These points are related to the reduction of emissions harmful to the environment as a result of the conflicting interests of the two sides.
– Cancun Conference:
This conference took place in November 2010, and is one of the most important international conferences to confront the reflections of climate change, which 193 countries attended. This conference took place as a result of the failure of the Copenhagen Conference to reach a binding formula for protecting the world from climate change. Decisions were made during this conference. It has been decided to establish a fund to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to control them, to take concrete measures to protect the environment in the world, to keep the world temperature at two degrees, to support developing countries in the long term to help them adapt to climate conditions.
At this conference, opinions on this matter remained different. Industrial countries tried to reduce their liabilities to avoid any economic burden. Thus, they refused to expand the work of the Kyoto Protocol. The demands of the developing countries were to extend the implementation of the protocol unless another more comprehensive agreement was reached. It is considered to be a historical responsibility for developed countries due to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and its causing global warming. Countries whose economic growth has been based on consuming and polluting resources since the industrial revolution should also take on their responsibilities.
– Durban Conference:
It was held in South Africa in December 2011. By 2015, it has established an agreement between all countries participating in the fight against the climate change. Its participants agreed to extend the work of the Kyoto Protocol beyond 2012. They negotiated a new, long-term climate agreement. The developed countries have agreed to double efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to help developing countries adapt to some of the inevitable effects of climate change.
|My environmental problem has been defined as a global, regional, international and local problem. It is clearly seen by the number of international conventions, conferences and summits that attract great attention and are held on it. However, each conference follows the previous one, does not continue where it reached, but repeats where it came from. Environmental agreements are increasing, environmental problems are also aggravating, research and statistics show that the risks posed by our planet today are increasing. The problem of global environmental policy is the problem of awareness and implementation.|
– Doha Conference:
It was organized at the end of 2012. Its findings include the agreement of the participating countries to work towards a global agreement on climate change. It will be adopted in 2015 and will have covered all countries as of 2020. In order for the increase in the average global temperature to remain below 2 degrees, it was also agreed to find ways to intensify efforts to reduce emissions before 2020. In March 2013, the Countries agreed to provide information and make recommendations to the United Nations Secretariat’s Climate Change committee on their plans and initiatives in this area. a negotiating legal text has been reached no later than the end of this year to draft a negotiating text before 2015.
4- Obstacles to global environmental policy:
The difference of interests between the countries of the North and the South played a role in decimating the realization of an effective global environmental policy. The Southern countries consider it necessary to extend the work of the Kyoto Protocol to the conferences and summits held thereafter. Developed countries are considering stopping the practice in order to reduce their obligations and avoid any economic burden.
While the global community agrees to reduce the severity of the environmental threat, industrial countries are redistributing industry around the world to serve their own interests. They call it a strategy to internationalize production and developing the south. Countries in the south call it environmental terrorism.
Accordingly, it can be said that these international conferences and agreements have turned contemporary environmental issues into a new area of conflict between the North and the South, and have decisively affected international security and stability. The South accuses the North of being responsible for global environmental degradation, and demands that it take responsibility and control over excessive energy consumption, the exhaustion of natural resources and the production of greenhouse gases. On the other hand, the north demands that it reduce the population growth, seen from the south as a source of pressure on the environment from all directions.
It can be said that the existence of environmental policies and developments at the global level since the organization of numerous agreements, conventions, summits and conferences in the nineties has not been reflected in the success of global policy. And these summits are not at the implementation stage. These global affairs, on the other hand, are formulated in the form of plans, strategies and goals. These plans and strategies have not been realized due to the difference in the perception of environmental problems. This difference is due to the dec of interests between countries that stand in the way of achieving the real goals of global environmental policy.
– United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2013: The Renaissance of the South…is Human Development in a World of Diversity, Translation: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for West Asia (ESCWA), New York, 2013
– Farghali Hassan Ahmed, Environment and Sustainable Development, Knowledge Framework and Accounting Assessment, Cairo, Center for Graduate Studies and Research and Development, 2007
– Mouayed Hamid Abdullah Khayukha, Economics and International Agreements with the Environment, United Arab Emirates, University Bookstore, 2011
– Ahmed Sayed Elbeyli, Global Environmental Risks and the Conditions of the Arab Environment: Global Warming, the Ozone Hole and the Global Warming Research Site, Cairo, Dar Al-Kitab Al-Hadith, 2009
– Abdel Hakim Mihoubi, Climate Change: Causes, Risks and the Future of the Global Environment, Algeria, Khaldounia Publishing and Distribution House, 2011